First edition of this rare separately issued map of the United States, published by Edward Stanford & Co. to meet demand in England for information concerning the War in America.
The map highlights the Southern United States which had seceded from the Union and were then at War with the Northern States, which are divided from the Northern States by a red line.
Among the most notable features of the map are the unusual western territorial boundaries. Among the more interesting boundaries are:
- Nevada-Utah, still shown in its initial configuration, with the boundary 2 degrees west of its final position
- New Mexico-Arizona Territorial Border, reflecting the so-called "Baylor Line," which demarcated the disputed confederate Arizona Territory, an area south of New Mexico, which divided New Mexico Territory at the 34th Parallel. While the US Federal Government created Arizona Territory in what would become its modern configuration, the Confederates recognized an earlier version of Arizona Territory, which consisted of the Southern part of New Mexico Territory
- Extra piece of Utah extending above Colorado
- Washington and Oregon extending to the Rocky Mountains, prior to the creation of Idaho
- Massive Nebraska Territory, pre-dating Montana, Wyoming and the modern configuration of the Dakotas, which then only extended to the Missouri River.
Of the group above, the story of Confederate Arizona Territory is the most interesting. As early as 1856, there were serious doubts about the governance of the remote parts of New Mexico Territory to the south and the west. The first proposal for splitting New Mexico Territory (at the 32nd Meridian), was adopted by the New Mexico Legislature in 1858.
In April 1860, impatient for Congress to act, a convention was called and 31 delegates met in Tucson. In July 1860, the convention drafted a constitution for a "Territory of Arizona" to be organized out of the New Mexico Territory south of the 34th Parallel. The convention elected Lewis Owings as the Territorial Governor, and elected a delegate to Congress. The proposal failed in Congress because of opposition from anti-slavery Congressmen. Many people in the area were pro-slavery, with business connections in southern states, and this new territory lay below the old Missouri Compromise line of demarcation between slave and free states. Thus anti-slavery Congressmen feared that the new territory might eventually become a slave state.
Sentiments in Arizona remained highly supportive of the Territory. Arizonan's felt neglected by the United States government. There were too few troops to fight the Apaches who were terrorizing travelers, ranches and mining camps. The closing of the Butterfield Overland Mail stations which connected the Arizona frontier colonies to the East and California was also a major concern. In March 1861, the citizens of Mesilla called a secession convention to separate themselves from the United States and join the Confederacy. On March 16, a secession ordinance was passed in Mesilla and a second ordinance was passed March 28, 1862 in Tucson. The Confederacy would later admit Arizona Territory to the Confederacy in February 1862.
As the British were supporters of Southern independence, the depiction of the Confederate Arizona Territory was consistent with British foreign policy.
The government of Confederate Arizona Territory was very short-lived. Following the Confederate victory at the Battle of Mesilla, a government was formed, with Messilla as its capital. Confederate hold in the area was soon broken, however, after the Battle of Glorieta Pass. In July 1862, the government of the Confederate Territory of Arizona relocated to El Paso, Texas, where it remained for the duration of the war. The territory continued to be represented in the Confederate Congress and Confederate troops continued to fight under the Arizona banner until the war's end.
The map is of the utmost rarity. OCLC locates only a single example of the 1861 edition of this map, in the collection of David Rumsey.
Edward Stanford (1827-1904) was a prominent British mapmaker and publisher. A native of Holborn in the heart of London, Edward was apprenticed to a printer and stationer at the age of 14. After his first master died, he worked with several others, including Trelawny W. Saunders of Charing Cross. Saunders oversaw young Edward’s early career, ensuring that he became a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. Associations with the Society eventually brought Sanders much business and gave him a reputation as a publisher of explorers. As testament to this reputation, the Stanford Range in British Columbia was named for him by John Palliser.
Stanford briefly partnered with Saunders in 1852 before striking out on his own in 1853. He was an agent for the Ordnance Survey, the Admiralty, the Geological Survey, the Trigonometrical Survey of India, and the India Office. He also controlled the maps of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, another lucrative source of income. In 1857, Stanford founded his namesake Geographical Establishment, with Saunders and A. K. Johnston as engravers. Thereafter, Stanford was known for his “library maps”, particularly those of Africa and Asia.
Although he had authored many maps, the Harrow Atlas of Modern Geography and a similar volume on classical geography, Stanford is better remembered today as the leader of a successful map business. Ever in search of more inventory, he acquired the plates and stock of John Arrowsmith, heir of the Arrowmsith family firm, in 1874. By 1881 he employed 87 people at his premises at 6 Charing Cross Road, Saunders’ old address. As he aged, he phased in his son Edward Jr. to run the business. He died in 1904. The business survived him, and the Stanford’s shop is still a prominent London landmark today.