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Theodore De Bry:  [Florida Indian Village & Ceremony] Was sie für Ceremonien halten wann sie der Sonnen järlich eine Hirsch: haut opffern.

Maps of Southeast America (Virginia Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina)


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Title: [Florida Indian Village & Ceremony] Was sie für Ceremonien halten wann sie der Sonnen järlich eine Hirsch: haut opffern.

Map Maker: Theodore De Bry

Place / Date: Frankfurt / 1591

Coloring: Hand Colored

Size: 10 x 7 inches

Condition: VG+

Price: $295.00

Inventory ID: 47800mp2


Description:

Striking image of Native American chief or king showing Frenchmen a group of Indians worshipping a stag or deer. The stag, decorated with garlands or flowers, is empaled on a pole.  Includes tattoos and guns or muskets.

The text describes how the natives, annually at the end of winter, take the skin of the largest stag they have been able to capture, stuff it, and place it so that its head faces the rising sun.

This work was published by Theodor de Bry from manuscript notes and drawings made by Jacques le Moyne de Morgues, an illustrator and explorer, who sailed with René de Laudonnière, on the 1564 Huguenot expedition to Florida. Laudonnière set up Fort Caroline on the St. John's River in 1564, but the settlement was destroyed by the Spanish army under Pedro Menendez de Aviles.

A French expedition, organized by Protestant leader Admiral Gaspard de Coligny and led by the Norman navigator Jean Ribault, landed at the site on the River of May (now the St. Johns River) in February 1562, before moving north to Port Royal Sound.  There, on present-day Parris Island, South Carolina, Ribault left twenty-eight men to build a settlement known as Charlesfort. Ribault then returned to Europe to arrange supplies for the new colony, but was arrested in England due to complications arising from the French Wars of Religion, which prevented his return.

Without supplies or leadership, and beset by hostility from the native populations, all but one of the colonists sailed back to Europe after only a year. During their voyage in an open boat, they were reduced to cannibalism before the survivors were rescued in English waters. Meanwhile, René Goulaine de Laudonnière, who had been Ribault's second-in-command on the 1562 expedition, led a contingent of around 200 new settlers back to Florida, where they founded Fort Caroline (or Fort de la Caroline) atop St. Johns Bluff, on June 22, 1564. The fort was named for the reigning French king, Charles IX. For just over a year, this colony was beset by hunger, Indian attacks, and mutiny, and attracted the attention of Spanish authorities who considered it a challenge to their control over the area.

In June of 1565, Ribault had been released from English custody, and Coligny sent him back to Florida. In late August, Ribault arrived at Fort Caroline with a large fleet and hundreds of soldiers and settlers and took command of the settlement. However, the recently appointed Spanish Governor of Florida, Don Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, had simultaneously been dispatched from Spain with orders to remove the French outpost, and arrived within days of Ribault’s landing. After a brief skirmish between Ribault's ships and Menéndez's ships, the latter retreated 35 miles south, where they established the settlement of St. Augustine. Ribault pursued the Spanish with several of his ships and most of his troops, but he was surprised at sea by a violent storm lasting several days. In a bold stroke, Menéndez marched his forces overland, launching a surprise dawn attack on the Fort Caroline garrison which then numbered about 200 to 250 people. The only survivors were about 50 women and children who were taken prisoner and a few defenders, including Laudonnière, who managed to escape; the rest were executed.

As for Ribault's fleet, all of the ships either sank or ran aground south of St. Augustine during the storm, and many of the Frenchmen onboard were lost at sea. Ribault and his marooned sailors were located by Menéndez and his troops and summoned to surrender. Apparently believing that his men would be well treated, Ribault capitulated. Menéndez then executed Ribault and several hundred Frenchmen as Lutheran heretics, at a place now known as Matanzas ("massacres") Inlet. This atrocity shocked Europeans even in that bloody era of religious strife. This place is known today by a fort built much later, Fort Matanzas. This massacre put an end to France's attempts at colonization of the southeast coast of North America. 


Related Categories:
Maps of Florida
Maps of Southeast America (Virginia Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina)